(Request ni Dayanan)
Three Periods of the History of Greek Literature
- FIRST PERIOD – covered the Pre-Homeric Age & Homeric Age, from remote antiquity to the age of Herodotus (484 B.C.)
– earliest poetry of Greece and the works of Homer
- SECOND PERIOD – drama, flourished in Athens
– coincides with the Athenian Period to the Golden Age of Pericles, extends from the age of Herodotus to the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.)
- THIRD PERIOD – The Period of Decline, extends from the death of Alexander the Great to enslavement of the Greeks of Rome and extends to A.D. 1453.
Iliad – passion & cruelty of war; story of love and heroism
Odyssey – great adventures
Iliad & Odyssey – man’s fate is the result of his actions
– great epics, studies of man and the life of man, and the way of life and ideals of great civilization which has vanished but is still wonderfully alive in man’s heart.
Qualities of Greek Literature
- Permanence & Universality – after all those years, it is still being read and appreciated by people all over the world regardless of race, etc.
- Essentially Full of Artistry
- Intellectual Quality – researchers think of all the possibilities
- Diversity of Talent – there are researchers who keep on seeking until they find perfection
- Originality – Greeks claim originality because of their supreme power of modification.
Four Greatest Dramatists
- Sophocles – Oedipus Rex
- Aeschylus – Prometheus Bound, Trilogy Oresteia
Phallus – penis-like symbol of Dionysius, the god of fertility
Literature – queen of all arts; written account of mankind
Man – king of all arts; the center of literature
2 general types of literature: poetry and prose.
3 types of poetry: narrative, dramatic and lyric.
3 types of narrative poetry: epic, ballad and metrical tale.
2 types of epic: old epic and modern epic.
2 types of ballad: folk ballad and modern ballad.
3 types of dramatic poetry: soliloquy, dramatic monologue and aside.
3 types of lyrics poetry: ode, elegy and sonnet.
2 types of sonnet: english and italian.
in medias res – “in the middle of things”; style used by epics
ballad – tragic poem intended to be sung
metrical tale – story with a rhythm/measure (meter)
soliloquy – internal debate/deliberation; most often seen in a play
aside – talking to the audience but not allowing the person concerned to hear it
ode – expression of ardent personal feeling
elegy – sad funeral song
sonnet – has 14 lines. can be broken up into divisions: first 8 lines (octet) – express feelings and state the problem; next 6 (sestet) – marks the turn of emotion, states the solution, and is subjective; last 2 lines of the sestet – generalization.